Why does hot water never heats up to beyond limitations
As small as atoms are, some of them link together to form larger but still incredibly small basic units of matter called molecules. In a water molecule, it has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Water molecules are what give water its characteristic properties. All matter have distinct physical and chemical properties.
The boiling point as well as melting point is a chemical property that does not change during a phase change. As we know, at the submicroscopic level, the three phases are distinguished by how the particles hold together. For water, it exists either as a solid, a liquid or a gas depending on the conditions (e.g. temperature and pressure) to which it is subjected to. For ice, the water molecules are held close to each other because they have fixed positions.
They vibrate but they cannot move past one another. Heating causes these vibrations to increase until a certain temperature is reached. The vibrations are then rapid enough to disrupt the fixed arrangements and turn it into the liquid phase. The particles of the liquid phase further separate upon further heating and turn it into the gas phase. This happens at the temperature of 100 oC or 212 oF. Water vapor then evaporates until all of the liquid has turned into gas at this temperature. No matter how much heat is added to the boiling water, the temperature never exceeds 100’C.
This is because the condition wherein water molecules separate to each other occurs at this temperature. The addition of heat to ice or to liquid water causes physical changes to water. This also happens to hot water when heat is further added. It changes its phase into gas as well as its other physical properties. Its chemical composition and chemical properties however remains the same.